Efeitos do treinamento aeróbico sobre a freqüência cardíaca
Inserido por: Sport Training Admin - Ontem, 10:18 AM - Fórum: Biblioteca Científica - Sem Respostas

Efeitos do treinamento aeróbico sobre a freqüência cardíaca

Marcos B. Almeida e Claudio Gil S. Araújo

RESUMO
O exercício físico regular representa um importante fator
para reduzir índices de morbimortalidade cardiovascular e
por todas as causas. Entretanto, parece haver benefícios
adicionais e independentes da prática regular do exercício
físico e da melhora no nível de condição aeróbica. A freqüência
cardíaca (FC) é mediada primariamente pela atividade
direta do sistema nervoso autônomo (SNA), através
dos ramos simpático e parassimpático sobre a auto-ritmicidade
do nódulo sinusal, com predominância da atividade
vagal (parassimpática) em repouso e simpática durante o
exercício. O comportamento da FC tem sido amplamente
estudado em diferentes tipos e condições associadas ao
exercício. Redução do tônus vagal cardíaco e, conseqüentemente,
da variabilidade da FC em repouso, independentemente
do protocolo de mensuração, está relacionada à
disfunção autonômica, a doenças crônico-degenerativas e
ao risco de mortalidade aumentado. Indivíduos com boa
condição aeróbica tendem a apresentar FC de repouso mais
baixa, concomitantemente a maior atividade parassimpática
ou menor atividade simpática, mas não se pode afirmar
que esta seja uma conseqüência direta do treinamento, pois
outras adaptações inerentes ao condicionamento aeróbico
podem influenciar o comportamento da FC em repouso. A
resposta da FC no início do exercício permite estudar a integridade
da ação vagal cardíaca. A recuperação da FC após
esforço tanto máximo como submáximo também denota 
informação prognóstica relevante. Aqueles que apresentam
recuperação mais lenta da FC no primeiro minuto pós-esforço
possuem risco de mortalidade aumentado. Não são
claros ainda os mecanismos envolvidos na modulação da
FC em função de um programa de exercícios.

Palavras-chave: Treinamento. Freqüência cardíaca. Sistema nervoso
autônomo. Exercício.

Rev Bras Med Esporte _ Vol. 9, Nº 2 – Mar/Abr, 2003



Arquivo(s) anexado(s)
.pdf   Almeida 2003 - Treino aerobico frequencia cardiaca.pdf (Tamanho: 81.38 KB / Downloads: 1)

  EFFECTS OF THE NUMBER OF PLAYERS AND GAME TYPE CONSTRAINTS ON HEART RATE, RATING OF P
Inserido por: Sport Training Admin - Ontem, 10:09 AM - Fórum: Biblioteca Científica - Sem Respostas

EFFECTS OF THE NUMBER OF PLAYERS AND GAME TYPE CONSTRAINTS ON HEART RATE, RATING OF PERCEIVED EXERTION, AND TECHNICAL ACTIONS OF SMALL-SIDED SOCCER GAMES

CATARINA I. ABRANTES,MARTA I. NUNES, VICTOR M.MAÇÃS, NUNO M. LEITE, AND JAIME E. SAMPAIO

ABSTRACT
Abrantes, CI, Nunes, MI, Macxa˜ s, VM, Leite,NM, and Sampaio, JE.
Effects of the number of players and game type constraints on
heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and technical actions of
small-sided soccer games. J Strength Cond Res 26(4): 976–
981, 2012—The purpose of this study was to identify the
variation of heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE),
and technical actions between 2 soccer small-sided games
(SSGs; 3 3 3 and 4 3 4) in 3 game type constraints (when
playing only offense [OFF], playing only defense [DEF], and
both situations [GAME]). Sixteen high-level young male players
were analyzed (age 15.7560.45 years; height 172.464.83 cm;
body mass 64.5 6 6.44 kg; HRmax199.1 6 9.08 bmin21; and
8.06 61.98 years of soccer practice). All tasks were performed
in 4 periods of 4 minutes interspersed with 2 minutes of active
recovery. The HR was measured continuously and then
analyzed by the time spent into 4 training zones according to
individual %HRmax (zone 1 ,75%; zone 2 75–84.9%; zone 3
85–89.9%; and zone 4 $90%). Results identified that players
were most frequently in zones 2 and 3. The 3 3 3 SSGs elicited
higher HR and RPE and the most intense situation was GAME.
Despite the known higher frequencies from technical actions
in SSGs with fewer players, player effectiveness in 3 3 3
and 4 3 4 was identical. The use of GAME, OFF, and DEF
game type constraints should be carefully planned. Using the
3 3 3 format seems more adequate when aiming for aerobic
performance optimal effects; however, DEF situations should
only be used to promote aerobic recovery effects. The inclusion
of an additional player in SSGs had different interactions in
game type constraints, and only GAME presented adequate
intensity.

KEY WORDS offense, defense, notational analysis, performance,
youth players

Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research

 2012 National Strength and Conditioning Association



Arquivo(s) anexado(s)
.pdf   Abrantes 2012 - Heart rate soccer.pdf (Tamanho: 92.14 KB / Downloads: 0)

  Bioenergetics of a Slalom Kayak (K1) Competition
Inserido por: Sport Training Admin - 07-12-2017, 03:10 PM - Fórum: Biblioteca Científica - Sem Respostas

Bioenergetics of a Slalom Kayak (K1) Competition

P. Zamparo
S. Tomadini
F. Didonè
F. Grazzina
E. Rejc
C. Capelli

Abstract
The aim of this study was: i) to compute an energy balance of a
slalom kayak competition by measuring the percentage contributions
of the aerobic and anaerobic energy sources to total metabolic
power (E˙ tot); and ii) to compare these data with those obtained,
on the same subjects, over a flat-water course covered at
maximal speed in a comparable time. Experiments were performed
on eight middle- to high-class slalom kayakers (24.8 ±
8.1 years of age,1.75 ± 0.04mof stature, and 69.8 ± 4.7 kg of body
mass) who completed the slalom race in 85.8 ± 5.3 s and covered
the flat water course in 88.1 ± 7.7 s. E˙ tot was calculated from
measures of oxygen consumption and of blood lactate concentration:
it was about 30% larger during the flat water all-out test
(1.72 ± 0.18 kW) than during the slalom race (1.35 ± 0.12 kW).
However, in both cases, about 50% of E˙ tot derives from aerobic
and about 50% from anaerobic energy sources. These data suggest
that, besides training for skill acquisition and for improving
anaerobic power, some high intensity, cardiovascular conditioning
should be inserted in the training programs of the athletes
specialised in this sport.

Key words: Kayaking · canoeing · metabolic power · lactate



Arquivo(s) anexado(s)
.pdf   Zamparo 2006 - Slalom kayak.pdf (Tamanho: 238.84 KB / Downloads: 0)

  CONTROLE DA INTENSIDADE PROGRESSIVA DE EXERCÍCIOS LOCALIZADOS EM MULHERES IDOSAS POR
Inserido por: Sport Training Admin - 07-12-2017, 10:43 AM - Fórum: Biblioteca Científica - Sem Respostas

CONTROLE DA INTENSIDADE PROGRESSIVA DE EXERCÍCIOS LOCALIZADOS EM MULHERES IDOSAS POR MEIO DA PERCEPÇÃO SUBJETIVA DE ESFORÇO (BORG)

Cláudio de Oliveira Assumpção
Ídico Pellegrinotti
João Bartholomeu Neto
Maria Imaculada de L. Montebelo

RESUMO
O objetivo do presente estudo foi controlar a intensidade de um programa de exercícios localizados destinados a mulheres
idosas por meio da escala de Borg. Foram selecionadas 16 idosas (65,5±3,6 anos), inscritas no Centro de Educação Física,
Esporte e Recreação da ESALQ-USP. O treinamento proposto foi desenvolvido em 24 sessões durante 12 semanas. As
voluntárias foram submetidas a um programa de treinamento planejado, programado e segmentado em períodos
(periodizado). Para comparação da performance foram utilizados protocolos validados, como o questionário internacional de
atividade física e a escala de Borg. Os dados foram coletados nos momentos de 30 e 60 minutos de cada sessão para detectar
a percepção subjetiva do esforço por parte das participantes. Os resultados foram expressos como média dos valores do
esforço percebido pelas voluntárias nos momentos 30 min e 60 min das sessões de treino durante o macrociclo de
treinamento e sugerem que o método utilizado demonstrou ser efetivo para a detecção da mudança na intensidade percebida
pelas participantes em cada fase do treinamento. Pode-se afirmar que a utilização da escala de Borg é importante para o
controle da intensidade e da progressão da sobrecarga de exercícios em idosas.

Palavras-chave: Idoso. Saúde da mulher. Aptidão física.

R. da Educação Física/UEM Maringá, v. 19, n. 1, p. 33-39, 1. trim. 2008



Arquivo(s) anexado(s)
.pdf   Assumpção 2008 - Controle da intensidade de idosos.pdf (Tamanho: 129.17 KB / Downloads: 0)

  LABORATÓRIO DE DESEMPENHO ESPORTIVO - LADESP
Inserido por: Sport Training Admin - 07-12-2017, 10:39 AM - Fórum: Biblioteca Científica - Sem Respostas

LABORATÓRIO DE DESEMPENHO ESPORTIVO - LADESP


Maria Augusta Peduti Dal’Molin KISS
Maria Tereza Silveira BÖHME

Este artigo será apresentado de
forma sucinta em três tópicos relacionados à área
de estudo: caracterização, perspectivas e atuação.

Rev. paul. Educ. Fís., São Paulo, v.13, p.62-68, dez. 1999. N.esp.



Arquivo(s) anexado(s)
.pdf   Kiss 1999 -Laboratorio_de_desemprenho_esportivo_ladesp.pdf (Tamanho: 200.84 KB / Downloads: 1)

  Aparición de leyes de potencia en el deporte
Inserido por: Sport Training Admin - 05-12-2017, 04:29 PM - Fórum: Biblioteca Científica - Sem Respostas

Aparición de leyes de potencia en el deporte

J.M. García-Manso, J.M. Martín-González y M.E. Da Silva-Grigoletto

RESUMEN
La propuesta de este artículo es hacer una revisión crítica sobre nuevos modelos de intervención, análisis o
comprensión que alteren la situación actual sobre cómo se aborda el cuerpo de conocimiento de las ciencias
del deporte, ajustando sus contenidos a las situaciones reales en las que se producen las acciones motrices
específicas de cada especialidad deportiva. Es, por lo tanto, un planteamiento más amplio y acorde con las
necesidades reales, que complementa las herramientas hasta la fecha utilizadas. La propuesta parte de la
lógica de la complejidad en la que todo incide sobre todo; de la realidad de lo múltiple y lo diverso que actúa
de forma simultánea; de que los fenómenos surgen de las interacciones y los antagonismos de las partes;
de la supuesta aleatoriedad o cuasi aleatoriedad de los sucesos; de la variabilidad de los comportamientos,
entre otros factores.

Palabras clave:
Performance.
Sistemas complejos.
Aleatoriedad

© 2009 Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte.



Arquivo(s) anexado(s)
.pdf   X1888754610478017_S300_es.pdf (Tamanho: 153.75 KB / Downloads: 0)

  Hypertrophy with unilateral resistance exercise occurs without increases in endogenou
Inserido por: Sport Training Admin - 05-12-2017, 04:27 PM - Fórum: Biblioteca Científica - Sem Respostas

Hypertrophy with unilateral resistance exercise occurs without increases in endogenous anabolic hormone concentration


Sarah B. Wilkinson · Mark A. Tarnopolsky · Emily J. Grant ·
Caroline E. Correia · Stuart M. Phillips

Abstract We aimed to gain insight into the role that
the transitory increases in anabolic hormones play in
muscle hypertrophy with unilateral resistance training.
Ten healthy young male subjects (21.8 § 0.4 years,
1.78 § 0.04 m, 75.6 § 2.9 kg; mean § SE) engaged in
unilateral resistance training for 8 week (3 days/week).
Exercises were knee extension and leg press performed
at 80–90% of the subject’s single repetition maximum
(1RM). Blood samples were collected in the acute
period before and after the Wrst training bout and following
the last training bout and analyzed for total testosterone,
free-testosterone, luteinizing hormone, sex
hormone binding globulin, growth hormone, cortisol,
and insulin-like growth factor-1. Thigh muscle cross
sectional area (CSA) and muscle Wbre CSA by biopsy
(vastus lateralis) were measured pre- and post-training.
Acutely, no changes in systemic hormone concentrations
were observed in the 90 min period following
exercise and there was no inXuence of training on these
results. Training-induced increases were observed in
type IIx and IIa muscle Wbre CSA of 22 § 3 and
13 § 2% (both P < 0.001). No changes were observed
in Wbre CSA in the untrained leg (all P > 0.5). Whole
muscle CSA increased by 5.4 § 0.9% in the trained leg
(P < 0.001) and remained unchanged in the untrained
leg (P = 0.76). Isotonic 1RM increased in the trained
leg for leg press and for knee extension (P < 0.001). No
changes were seen in the untrained leg. In conclusion,
unilateral training induced local muscle hypertrophy
only in the exercised limb, which occurred in the
absence of changes in systemic hormones that ostensibly
play a role in muscle hypertrophy.

Keywords Testosterone · Growth hormone · Strength ·
Weightlifting

Eur J Appl Physiol (2006) 98:546–555



Arquivo(s) anexado(s)
.pdf   Wilkinson 2006 - Hipertrophy Unilateral Resistance Exercise.pdf (Tamanho: 369.48 KB / Downloads: 0)

  NOT ALL INSTABILITY TRAINING DEVICES ENHANCE MUSCLE ACTIVATION IN HIGHLY RESISTANCE-T
Inserido por: Sport Training Admin - 05-12-2017, 04:24 PM - Fórum: Biblioteca Científica - Sem Respostas

NOT ALL INSTABILITY TRAINING DEVICES ENHANCE MUSCLE ACTIVATION IN HIGHLY RESISTANCE-TRAINED INDIVIDUALS
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research the TM

MICHAEL J. WAHL AND DAVID G. BEHM

ABSTRACT
Wahl, MJ and Behm, DG. Not all instability training devices enhance
muscle activation in highly resistance-trained individuals.
J Strength Cond Res 22: 1360–1370, 2008—The objective of
this study was to measure the electromyographic (EMG)
activity of the soleus, bicep femoris, rectus femoris, lower
abdominal, and lumbosacral erector spinae (LSES) muscles
with a variety of (a) instability devices, (b) stable and unstable
(Dyna Disc) exercises, and © a fatiguing exercise in 16 highly
conditioned individuals. The device protocol had participants
assume standing and squatting postures while balancing on
a variety of unstable platforms (Dyna Disc, BOSU ball, wobble
board, and a Swiss ball) and a stable floor. The exercise
protocol had subjects performing, static front lunges, static
side lunges, 1-leg hip extensions, 1-leg reaches, and calf raises
on a floor or an unstable Dyna Disc. For the fatigue experiment,
a wall sit position was undertaken under stable and unstable
(BOSU ball) conditions. Results for the device experiment
demonstrated increased activity for all muscles when standing
on a Swiss ball and all muscles other than the rectus femoris
when standing on a wobble board. Only lower abdominals and
soleus EMG activity increased while squatting on a Swiss ball
and wobble board. Devices such as the Dyna Disc and BOSU
ball did not exhibit significant differences in muscle activation
under any conditions, except the LSES in the standing Dyna
Disc conditions. During the exercise protocol, there were no
significant changes in muscle activity between stable and
unstable (Dyna Disc) conditions. With the fatigue protocol,
soleus EMG activity was 51% greater with a stable base.
These results indicate that the use of moderately unstable
training devices (i.e., Dyna Disc, BOSU ball) did not provide
sufficient challenges to the neuromuscular system in highly
resistance-trained individuals. Since highly trained individuals
may already possess enhanced stability from the use of
dynamic free weights, a greater degree of instability may be
necessary.

KEY WORDS stability, balance, electromyography, strength, fatigue

Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research the TM



Arquivo(s) anexado(s)
.pdf   Wahl 2008 - Not All Instability Devices Enhance.pdf (Tamanho: 603.54 KB / Downloads: 0)

  DETERMINING VARIABLES OF PLYOMETRIC TRAINING FOR IMPROVING VERTICAL JUMP HEIGHT PERFO
Inserido por: Sport Training Admin - 05-12-2017, 04:21 PM - Fórum: Biblioteca Científica - Sem Respostas

DETERMINING VARIABLES OF PLYOMETRIC TRAINING FOR IMPROVING VERTICAL JUMP HEIGHT PERFORMANCE: A META-ANALYSIS

EDUARDO SAEZ-SAEZ DE VILLARREAL, ELEFTHERIOS KELLIS, WILLIAM J. KRAEMER,
AND MIKEL IZQUIERDO

ABSTRACT
Saez Saez de Villarreal, E, Kellis, E, Kraemer, WJ, and Izquierdo, M.
Determining variables of plyometric training for improving
vertical jump height performance: a meta-analysis. J Strength
Cond Res 23(2): xxx–xxx, 2009—Plyometric training improves
vertical jump height (VJH). However, the effectiveness of
plyometric training depends on various factors. A meta-analysis
of 56 studies with a total of 225 effect sizes (ESs) was carried
out to analyze the role of various factors on the effects of
plyometrics on VJH performance. The inclusion criteria for the
analysis were a) studies using plyometric programs for lowerlimb
muscles, b) studies employing true experimental designs
and valid and reliable measurements, and c) studies including
enough data to calculate ESs. Subjects with more experience in
sport obtained greater enhancements in VJH performance (p ,
0.01). Subjects in either good or bad physical condition benefit
equally from plyometric work (p , 0.05), although men tend
to obtain better power results than women after plyometric
training (p , 0.05). With relation to the variables of performance,
training volumes of more than 10 weeks and more than
20 sessions, using high-intensity programs (with more than
50 jumps per session), were the strategies that seemed to
maximize the probability of obtaining significantly greater
improvements in performance (p , 0.05). To optimize jumping
enhancement, the combination of different types of plyometrics
(squat jump + countermovement jump + drop jump) is
recommended rather than using only 1 form (p , 0.05).
However, no extra benefits were found to be gained from doing
plyometrics with added weight. The responses identified in this
analysis are essential and should be considered by strength
and conditioning professionals with regard to the most
appropriate dose-response trends for optimizing plyometricinduced
gains.

KEY WORDS power, effect size, lower limb, training volume, intensity

Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research  2009 National Strength and Conditioning Association



Arquivo(s) anexado(s)
.pdf   Villarreal 2009 - Determining Variables Plyometric Training.pdf (Tamanho: 144.35 KB / Downloads: 0)

  Short-Term Effects of Complex and Contrast Training in Soccer Playersʼ Vertical Jump,
Inserido por: Sport Training Admin - 05-12-2017, 04:19 PM - Fórum: Biblioteca Científica - Sem Respostas

Short-Term Effects of Complex and Contrast Training in Soccer Playersʼ Vertical Jump, Sprint, and Agility Abilities

José Vilaça Alves
António Rebelo
Catarina Abrantes
Jaime Sampaio

ABSTRACT
Alves, JMVM, Rebelo, AN, Abrantes, C, and Sampaio, J. Shortterm
effects of complex and contrast training in soccer players’
vertical jump, sprint, and agility abilities. J Strength Cond Res
24(4): 936–941, 2010—The purpose of this study was to
analyze the short-term effects of complex and contrast training
(CCT) on vertical jump (squat and countermovement jump),
sprint (5 and 15 m), and agility (505 Agility Test) abilities in
soccer players. Twenty-three young elite Portuguese soccer
players (age 17.4 6 0.6 years) were divided into 2 experimental
groups (G1, n = 9, and G2, n = 8) and 1 control group (G3,
n = 6). Groups G1 and G2 have done their regular soccer
training along with a 6-week strength training program of CCT,
with 1 and 2 training sessions!wk21, respectively. G3 has been
kept to their regular soccer training program. Each training
session from the CCT program was organized in 3 stations in
which a general exercise, a multiform exercise, and a specific
exercise were performed. The load was increased by 5% from 1
repetition maximum each 2 weeks. Obtained results allowed
identifying (a) a reduction in sprint times over 5 and 15 m (9.2
and 6.2% for G1 and 7.0 and 3.1%, for G2; p , 0.05) and (2)
an increase on squat and jump (12.6% for G1 and 9.6% for G2;
p , 0.05). The results suggested that the CCT induced the
performance increase in 5 and 15 m sprint and in squat jump.
Vertical jump and sprint performances after CCT program were
not influenced by the number of CCT sessions per week (1 or 2
sessions!wk21). From the obtained results, it was suggested
that the CCT is an adequate training strategy to develop soccer
players’ muscle power and speed.

KEYWORDS strength, muscle power, postactivation potentiation

Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research the TM



Arquivo(s) anexado(s)
.pdf   Short_Term_Effects_of_Complex_and_Contrast-2.7.pdf (Tamanho: 301.24 KB / Downloads: 0)